Are there predictive factors for secondary causes of pseudotumor mind?

Pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (additionally described cerebri) hydrocephalus or a illness that contributes to elevated intracranial stress and papillary edema within the absence of structural mind injury and the absence of cerebrospinal fluid, which has no adjustments in its composition.

It often happens in its major type, also called idiopathic intracranial hypertension, of unknown etiology. However, it may be on account of different secondary causes, corresponding to: medicines, vascular adjustments, sleep apnea and anemia.

{a magazine} cephalalgia printed a potential research evaluating sufferers with pseudotumor cerebri syndrome of idiopathic and secondary causes to find out whether or not there had been medical or neuroimaging factors that may recommend secondary causes. Comparison of these teams was carried out by phenotypic analysis of sufferers, medical manifestations, and neuroimaging.

Learn extra: Are you acquainted with Alice in Wonderland syndrome?

Mand all

The cohort research was observational and potential. Inclusion standards had been sufferers over 18 years of age with medical suspicion of pseudotumor cerebri syndrome onset. Exclusion standards had been as follows: pregnant or lactating girls, sufferers who didn’t meet the revised Friedman standards, and lack of info within the medical data.

The analyzed inhabitants included 278 contributors with medical suspicion of the onset of pseudotumor cerebri syndrome from two specialised facilities (Odense University Hospital the and Danish Headache Center) from January 2018 to July 2021.

All contributors underwent diagnostic research, corresponding to: full historical past, neurological and neuro-ophthalmological examination, routine laboratory examination, rachiscentesis and routine cerebrospinal fluid, magnetic resonance imaging of the mind, and venous vascular examination.

After this examination, sufferers had been recognized with pseudotumor cerebri syndrome and divided into two teams:

  • (1) sufferers with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH).
  • (two) sufferers with secondary pseudotumor mind syndrome (sPTCS).

Patients with secondary pseudotumor cerebri had been divided into 5 causes: drug-related, systemic illness, sleep apnea, cerebrovascular illness, and miscellaneous (different recognized causes of sPTCS).

Neuroimaging analysis was carried out by a neuroradiologist. We had been instructed to establish the particular indicators of elevated intracranial stress as described within the revised Friedman standards: hole sella turcica, flattening of the posterior facet of the eyeball, widening of the perioptic subarachnoid house, and transverse venous sinus stenosis.


Of the 278 contributors initially included, 148 had been truly analyzed for this research, together with 120 sufferers with idiopathic intracranial hypertension and 28 sufferers with secondary pseudotumor mind. The remaining 130 contributors had been excluded as a result of they didn’t meet the revised Friedman diagnostic standards (n = 95), illness recurrence (n = 12), being pregnant (n = 3), and lacking knowledge (n = 20).

The most typical causes had been drug (n = 8; 28.6%) and systemic causes (n = 8; 28.6%). Drug causes related to PTCS embrace tetracycline, lithium, prednisolone, retinoids, tacrolimus, and ustekinumab. The group of systemic causes included instances corresponding to systemic lupus erythematosus and anemia.

Regarding the opposite categorized teams, 17.9% had been related to sleep apnea, however solely 32 contributors within the research underwent polysomnography. In addition, 14.3% have cerebrovascular causes corresponding to cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), stenosis after earlier CVT and antiphospholipid syndrome (even when there is not any affirmation or suspicion of thrombosis).

In each teams, the bulk of contributors had been feminine (92.9% in SPTCS and 96.7% in IIH, p=0.3) and overweight (BMI 35.6). in opposition to the 36.4 respectively, p=0.6). In each teams, the imply age vary was on the time of childbearing, and it needs to be famous that sufferers with sPTCS had been older in comparison with IIH (imply age 33.9 years). in opposition to the 28.9 years, respectively, p=0.003).

Reported medical manifestations had been comparable between teams, together with power headache (with greater than 15 days of ache monthly), dizziness, transient visible acuity, blurred imaginative and prescient, and diplopia. There had been extra sufferers with IIH tinnitus Patients with pulsatile (56.1%) in comparison with sufferers with SPTCS (30.8%) with p-value = 0.03.

Although sufferers with sPTCS had been extra more likely to have the syndrome with out papilledema (18.5%) in comparison with sufferers with IIH (5.1%), p-value = 0.04, no important distinction within the severity of optic papilledema was discovered between the teams.

All contributors on this research had mind MRI and the bulk had venous imaging (96.4% of sufferers with sPTCS and 100% of sufferers with IIH). There had been no important variations in any neuroimaging findings between the 2 teams.


Determining the distinguishing options of secondary causes of pseudotumor cerebri syndrome for IIH is vital as a result of they alter the therapeutic strategy. In this potential observational research, essentially the most ceaselessly described secondary causes had been: medicine, systemic illnesses, sleep apnea, and cerebrovascular illness.

Although some important variations had been recognized between teams corresponding to age and frequency tinnitus pulsatile, these traits don’t assist the clinician in his follow to differentiate between idiopathic and secondary causes of pseudotumor mind. Patients with SPTCS have been proven to be extra more likely to be recognized with out signs of optic papilledema in contrast with IIH – a discovering suggesting that sufferers with pseudotumor cerebri syndrome with out papilledema might have secondary causes and needs to be investigated extra intently. huge to get rid of them.

An fascinating discovering is that clinicians, generally, needs to be very cautious in ruling out secondary causes of pseudotumor mind in any affected person assembly such diagnostic standards. This info is expounded to the truth that 82.1% of the pattern of this research had secondary causes of pseudotumor mind and required extra therapy past the usual therapy for this situation.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS): How far have we come in recent times?

sensible assertion

Secondary causes of pseudotumor mind needs to be investigated in all sufferers suspected of this syndrome. This potential observational research confirmed phenotypically and clinically comparable sufferers from idiopathic and secondary causes.

Check out the advantages of being a PEBMED consumer:

See different advantages of changing into a member
From the PEBMED portal:

7 days free with Whitebook

The app is designed for you, the doctor, to carry security and objectivity to your medical determination making.

Free entry to Nursebook

Access basic info for your every day life, corresponding to anamnesis and semiology.

Free entry to the discussion board

An area for sharing experiences and constructive feedback on medical and well being associated matters.

limitless alternative

Get entry to information, analysis, updates and different content material written and reviewed by specialists

Test your data

Take our quizzes and discover in a easy and enjoyable manner

customized content material

Receive analysis, updates, new behaviors and different specialised content material by e mail

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published.